Quinua (Chenopodium quinoa): Composición nutricional y Componentes bioactivos del grano y la hoja, e impacto del tratamiento térmico y de la germinación

Autores/as

  • Jordy Campos-Rodriguez Universidad Nacional del Santa, Facultad de Ingeniería, Departamento de Ingeniería Agroindustrial y Agrónoma, Av. Universitaria s/n, Urb. Bellamar, Nuevo Chimbote, Ancash, Perú
  • Katherine Acosta-Coral Universidad Nacional del Santa, Facultad de Ingeniería, Departamento de Ingeniería Agroindustrial y Agrónoma, Av. Universitaria s/n, Urb. Bellamar, Nuevo Chimbote, Ancash, Perú
  • Luz María Paucar-Menacho Universidad Nacional del Santa

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.17268/sci.agropecu.2022.019

Palabras clave:

Hojas de quinua, pseudocereal, aminoácidos, tratamientos térmicos, germinación

Resumen

La quinua (Chenopodium quinoa) es un pseudocereal andino que se produce en países como Bolivia, Perú, Ecuador y en el sur de Colombia, cuenta con más de 3000 variedades, distinguiéndose entre ellas por sus propiedades nutricionales y adaptación en las diversas zonas agroecológicas. Destaca en la quinua su perfil nutricional, sobresaliendo su contenido proteico, carbohidratos, lípidos y por no poseer gluten; es rico en vitaminas; y es una excelente fuente de minerales, como calcio, magnesio, hierro y fósforo. Es uno de los pocos alimentos que poseen en su composición todos los aminoácidos esenciales, sobresaliendo de otros cereales como el arroz o el trigo. Es una excelente fuente de compuestos bioactivos, que poseen propiedades antioxidantes, citotóxicas, antidiabéticas y antiinflamatorias. Con respecto a las hojas de quinua, varios estudios han indicado que presentan mayor contenido proteico que los granos, así como nutrientes inorgánicos como calcio, fósforo, hierro y zinc. Además. pueden servir potencialmente como una fuente rica de compuestos fenólicos y carotenoides. Los tratamientos térmicos convencionales afectan en gran o pequeña medida a la composición del alimento, incluyendo los compuestos bioactivos y la capacidad antioxidante. La germinación proporciona al producto mayor biodisponibilidad y un aumento en sus compuestos bioactivos. El propósito de este trabajo fue documentar investigaciones referentes a la quinua y sus hojas, el efecto de los tratamientos térmicos y la germinación sobre sus compuestos bioactivos, con el fin de fomentar la creación e innovación de productos con base de sus compuestos bioactivos, logrando así combatir la desnutrición de nuestra población.

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2022-08-08

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Campos-Rodriguez, Y., Acosta-Coral, K., & Paucar-Menacho, L. M. (2022). Quinua (Chenopodium quinoa): Composición nutricional y Componentes bioactivos del grano y la hoja, e impacto del tratamiento térmico y de la germinación. Scientia Agropecuaria, 13(3), 209-220. https://doi.org/10.17268/sci.agropecu.2022.019

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