Aplicación del propóleo en envasado activo

Rogger Rebaza, Laura Amaya, Anghela Gutiérrez, Ronald Haro, Marlon Tumbajulca, Flor Valera, Yordin Vargas, Gabriela Barraza-Jauregui, Jackeline León, Jesús Sánchez-González

Resumen


Las investigaciones relacionadas con el envasado activo están encaminados hacia la caracterización de nuevas películas basadas en hidrocoloides de fuentes no convencionales y la adición de agentes que proporcionen funcionalidad al envase. A los propóleos se les atribuyen diferentes propiedades biológicas, tales como: antitumorales, antiprotozoarias, antivirales, antioxidantes, antiinflamatorias, antibacteriales y antifúngicas; en particular, se ha encontrado que esta sustancia inhibe el desarrollo de patógenos de poscosecha como Botrytis cinerea y Penicillium expansum. El efecto de la incorporación de propóleo en propiedades funcionales de películas de quitosano, dentro de las propiedades estudiadas se determinó que la adición de propóleo redujo la permeabilidad de vapor de agua en las películas. Por otro lado, la incorporación de propóleo en películas a base de hidroxipropilmetilcelulosa, dieron lugar a una ligera disminución en la densidad y el pH. Respecto a las propiedades mecánicas, las películas de propóleo mostraron mayor alargamiento a la rotura (%) y los valores más bajos de resistencia a la tracción y módulos elásticos. El estudio permitió demostrar el efecto antibacteriano de ambos extractos de propóleo (los extractos etanólicos de propóleo fueron más efectivos que los extractos acuosos), además de que la actividad antibacteriana depende del lugar del que se extrae el propóleo y de la resistencia de estos microorganismos, siendo que las bacterias Gram-positivas son más susceptibles que las bacterias Gram-negativas. Las películas que contienen propóleos mostraron una notable actividad antifúngica contra los hongos ensayados, que fue más intensa frente a A. nigerthan contra Penicillium specie y componentes del propóleo tales como la rutina, quercetina y naringenina fueron los principales compuestos fenólicos del propóleo por lo que a la vez fueron los principales contribuyentes a la actividad antioxidante.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17268/agroind.science.2016.02.09

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