Efecto de la osmodeshidratación sobre el contenido de antocianinas y capacidad de rehidratación de arándanos (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) liofilizados

Hubert Arteaga, Mario Espinoza, Julio Aguilar, Elvia Gómez, Jhonatan Cabanillas, Miguel Santa


El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el efecto de la osmodeshidratación como pretratamiento a la liofilización sobre el contenido de antocianinas en el arándano (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) y su capacidad de rehidratación. Se utilizó el diseño compuesto central rotacional (DCCR) con concentraciones de sacarosa de 40 a 60 °Brix y temperaturas de 30 a 50°C de la solución osmótica, totalizando 11 ensayos, los que tuvieron una duración de 4 horas. Los arándanos osmodeshidratados se congelaron con nitrógeno líquido (-196 °C) a presión atmosférica y se liofilizaron a condiciones de 0,22 mbar y -50 °C durante 24 horas; cuantificándose el contenido de antocianinas (mg cianidina-3-glucosido/L) y la capacidad de rehidratación (CR) en el arándano liofilizado. Los arándanos sometidos a una solución osmótica de 50 °Brix y 50 °C presentaron el mayor contenido de antocianinas 126,64 (mg cianidina-3-glucosido/L) en tanto con solución osmótica de 57 °Brix y 47 °C, se obtuvo el mayor porcentaje de rehidratación 69,15%, que es superior al 25,27% encontrado para el arándano fresco liofilizado. Los resultados sugieren que la aplicación de la deshidratación osmótica como pretratamiento a la liofilización es una tecnología que no favorece la retención de las antocianinas del arándano (Vaccinium corymbosum L.), debido a que ocasiona un alto porcentaje de pérdida de estos compuestos por lixiviación, sin embargo, representa una opción para obtener productos con una mayor capacidad de rehidratación luego de ser liofilizados.


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17268/10.17268/agroind.science.2015.02.09

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