Optimization of processing parameters for the microencapsulation of soursop (Annona muricata L.) leaves extract: Morphology, physicochemical and antioxidant properties


  • Oscar Jordán-Suárez Universidad Le Cordon Bleu, Facultad de Ciencias de los Alimentos. Av. Salaverry 3180, Lima
  • Patricia Glorio-Paulet Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Facultad de Industrias Alimentarias, Departamento de Ingeniería de Alimentos y Productos Agropecuarios. Instituto de Investigación de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular (IIBBM). Av. La Molina s/n, Lima
  • Leslie Vidal Universidad de Concepción, Facultad de Ingeniería Agrícola, Departamento de Agroindustrias. Vicente Méndez 595, Chillán



Palabras clave:

annonacin, bioactive compounds, freeze drying, microencapsulation, spray drying


Soursop leaves contain bioactive compounds which degrade after being separated from their native matrix. In order to protect their functionality, encapsulation can be applied. This investigation aimed to optimize the parameters for microencapsulating a hydroethanolic extract of soursop leaves after selecting a technique among freeze (FDM) and spray drying (SDM). Selection was performed through a factorial design (23) including as factors: the technique (FDM and SDM), the encapsulant (Gum Arabic and maltodextrin) and its concentration (5% and 10%), for maximizing encapsulation efficiency (EE). Spray drying microencapsulation with maltodextrin at 10% showed the highest EE. Subsequently, the drying temperature and the feeding rate were optimized through a multilevel factorial design to minimize moisture and to maximize the powder solubility and the EE. A significant effect on the response variables (p < 0.05) was found, resulting in 140 ºC and 7 mL/min as optimum parameters. Optimized treatment powder was characterized in terms of microstructure (spherical particles with a random size and irregular surfaces), annonacin content via HPTLC (0.904 ± 0.054 mg/g), color (L* 66.89 ± 0.67, a* 0.06 ± 0.56 and b* 6.01 ± 0.20) and antioxidant capacity (17.88 ± 0.86 and 90.59 ± 1.19 µmol ET/g, by DPPH and ABTS assays). Proposed SDM conditions could be taken into account for preserving bioactive compounds from soursop leaves.


Abd Ghani, A., Adachi, S., Shiga, H., Loon Neoh, T., Adachi, S., & Yoshii, H. (2017). Effect of different dextrose equivalents of maltodextrin on oxidation stability in encapsulated fish oil by spray drying. Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry, 81(4), 705–711.

Airouyuwa, J. O., & Kaewmanee, T. (2019). Microencapsulation of Moringa oleifera leaf extracts with vegetable protein as wall materials. Food Science and Technology International, 25(6), 533–543.

Alamilla-Beltrán, L., Chanona-Pérez, J. J., Jiménez-Aparicio, A. R., & Gutiérrez-Lopez, G. F. (2005). Description of morphological changes of particles along spray drying. Journal of Food Engineering, 67(1–2), 179–184.

Aliakbarian, B., Sampaio, F. C., de Faria, J. T., Pitangui, C. G., Lovaglio, F., Casazza, A. A., Converti, A., & Perego, P. (2018). Optimization of spray drying microencapsulation of olive pomace polyphenols using Response Surface Methodology and Artificial Neural Network. Lwt, 93, 220–228.

Annunziata, G., Jiménez-García, M., Capó, X., Moranta, D., Arnone, A., Tenore, G. C., Sureda, A., & Tejada, S. (2020). Microencapsulation as a tool to counteract the typical low bioavailability of polyphenols in the management of diabetes. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 139, 111248.

Barbosa, J., Borges, S., Amorim, M., Pereira, M. J., Oliveira, A., Pintado, M. E., & Teixeira, P. (2015). Comparison of spray drying, freeze drying and convective hot air drying for the production of a probiotic orange powder. Journal of Functional Foods, 17, 340–351.

Bonneau, N., Baloul, L., Bajin ba Ndob, I., Sénéjoux, F., & Champy, P. (2017). The fruit of Annona squamosa L. as a source of environmental neurotoxins: From quantification of squamocin to annotation of Annonaceous acetogenins by LC–MS/MS analysis. Food Chemistry, 226, 32–40.

Çam, M., Içyer, N. C., & Erdoǧan, F. (2014). Pomegranate peel phenolics: Microencapsulation, storage stability and potential ingredient for functional food development. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 55(1), 117–123.

Che Man, Y. B., Irwandi, J., & Abdullah, W. J. W. (1999). Effect of different types of maltodextrin and drying methods on physico-chemical and sensory properties of encapsulated durian flavour. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 79(8), 1075–1080.

Chranioti, C., & Tzia, C. (2014). Arabic Gum Mixtures as Encapsulating Agents of Freeze-Dried Fennel Oleoresin Products. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 7(4), 1057–1065.

Dewi, E. N., Purnamayati, L., & Kurniasih, R. A. (2017). Physical characteristics of phycocyanin from Spirulina microcapsules using different coating materials with freeze drying method. Conference Series, 55(1–7).

Ezhilarasi, P. N., Indrani, D., Jena, B. S., & Anandharamakrishnan, C. (2013). Freeze drying technique for microencapsulation of Garcinia fruit extract and its effect on bread quality. Journal of Food Engineering, 117(4), 513–520.

Fernández, A. E. L., Obledo-Vázquez, E. N., Vivar-Vera, M. de los A., Ayerdi, S. G. S., & Montalvo-González, E. (2017). Evaluation of emerging methods on the polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity and qualitative presence of acetogenins in soursop pulp (Annona muricata L.). Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, 39, 1–8.

Figueroa, P. M., Ceballos, M. A., & Hurtado, A. M. (2016). Microencapsulación mediante secado por aspersión de aceite de mora (Rubus glaucus ) extraído con CO2 supercrítico. Revista Colombiana de Química, 45(2), 39–47.

Garavand, F., Rahaee, S., Vahedikia, N., & Jafari, S. M. (2019). Different techniques for extraction and micro/nanoencapsulation of saffron bioactive ingredients. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 89, 26–44.

George, V. C., Kumar, D. R. N., Suresh, P. K., & Kumar, R. A. (2015). Antioxidant, DNA protective efficacy and HPLC analysis of Annona muricata (soursop) extracts. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 52(4), 2328–2335.

González-Ortega, R., Faieta, M., di Mattia, C. D., Valbonetti, L., & Pittia, P. (2020). Microencapsulation of olive leaf extract by freeze-drying: Effect of carrier composition on process efficiency and technological properties of the powders. Journal of Food Engineering, 285, 110089.

Guo, J., Li, P., Kong, L., & Xu, B. (2020). Microencapsulation of curcumin by spray drying and freeze drying. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 132, 109892.

Jamdar, F., Ali Mortazavi, S., Asl, M. R. S., & Sharifi, A. (2021). Physicochemical properties and enzymatic activity of wheat germ extract microencapsulated with spray and freeze drying. Food Science and Nutrition, 9(2), 1192–1201.

Jing, L., Ma, H., Fan, P., Gao, R., & Jia, Z. (2015). Antioxidant potential, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of Rhododendron anthopogonoides and its protective effect on hypoxia-induced injury in PC12 cells. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 15, 287.

Jordán-Suárez, O., Glorio-Paulet, P., & Vidal, L. (2018). Microstructure of Annona muricata L. leaves extract microcapsules linked to physical and chemical characteristics. Journal of Encapsulation and Adsorption Sciences, 08(03), 178–193.

Leite, M. T. S., de Jesus, M. S., da Silva, J. L. A., Araujo, H. C. S., Sandes, R. D. D., Shanmugam, S., & Narain, N. (2019). Effect of spray drying on bioactive and volatile compounds in soursop (Annona muricata) fruit pulp. Food Research International, 124, 70–77.

Li, J., Xiong, S., Wang, F., Regenstein, J. M., & Liu, R. (2015). Optimization of microencapsulation of fish oil with Gum Arabic/Casein/Beta-Cyclodextrin mixtures by spray drying. Journal of Food Science, 80(7), C1445–C1452.

Li, X., Feng, Y., Ting, S., Jiang, J., & Liu, Y. (2019). Effect of processing conditions on the physiochemical properties and nutrients retention of spray-dried microcapsules using mixed protein system. CYTA - Journal of Food, 17(1), 25–35.

Machado, A. R. T., Lage, G. A., da Silva Medeiros, F., de Souza Filho, J. D., & Pimenta, L. P. S. (2014). Total α,β-Unsaturated-γ-Lactone Acetogenins in Annona muricata by Proton NMR Spectroscopy. Applied Magnetic Resonance, 46(2), 153–160.

Machado de Moraes, I. V., Vasconcelos Ribeiro, P. R., Schmidt, F. L., Marques Canuto, K., Zocolo, G. J., Sousa de Brito, E., Luo, R., Richards, K. M., Tran, K., & Smith, R. E. (2016). UPLC–QTOF–MS and NMR analyses of graviola (Annona muricata) leaves. Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy, 26, 174–179.

Mezhericher, M., Levy, A., & Borde, I. (2010). Spray drying modelling based on advanced droplet drying kinetics. Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification, 49(11), 1205–1213.

Nickerson, M., Yan, C., Cloutier, S., & Zhang, W. (2014). Protection and Masking of Omega-3 and -6 Oils via Microencapsulation. In A. Gaonkar, N. Vasisht, A. R. Khare, & R. Sobel (Eds.), Microencapsulation in the Food Industry (pp. 485–500). Elsevier Inc.

Ogrodowska, D., Tańska, M., & Brandt, W. (2017). The Influence of Drying Process Conditions on the Physical Properties, Bioactive Compounds and Stability of Encapsulated Pumpkin Seed Oil. Food Bioprocess Technology, 10, 1265–1280.

Paramita, V., Iida, K., Yoshii, H., & Furuta, T. (2010). Effect of additives on the morphology of spray-dried powder. Drying Technology, 28(3), 323–329.

Pelden, D., & Meesawat, U. (2019). Foliar idioblasts in different-aged leaves of a medicinal plant ( Annona muricata L.). Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol., 41(2), 414–420.

Ramírez, M. J., Giraldo, G. I., & Orrego, C. E. (2015). Modeling and stability of polyphenol in spray-dried and freeze-dried fruit encapsulates. Powder Technology, 277, 89–96.

Reineccius, G. A. (2004). The spray drying of food flavors. Drying Technology, 22(6), 1289–1324.

Roduan, M. R. M., Hamid, R. A., Kqueen, C. Y., & Mohtarrudin, N. (2019). Cytotoxicity, antitumor-promoting and antioxidant activities of Annona muricata in vitro. Journal of Herbal Medicine, 15, 100219.

Rubiano, K. D., Cárdenas, J. A., & Ciro, H. J. (2015). Encapsulation of d-limonene flavors using spray drying: Effect of the addition of emulsifiers. Ingenieria y Competitividad, 17(2), 77–89.

Saikia, S., Mahnot, N. K., & Mahanta, C. L. (2015). Optimisation of phenolic extraction from Averrhoa carambola pomace by response surface methodology and its microencapsulation by spray and freeze drying. Food Chemistry, 171, 144–152.

Silva, P. I., Stringheta, P. C., Teof́ilo, R. F., & De Oliveira, I. R. N. (2013). Parameter optimization for spray-drying microencapsulation of jaboticaba (Myrciaria jaboticaba) peel extracts using simultaneous analysis of responses. Journal of Food Engineering, 117(4), 538–544.

Sun, X., Cameron, R. G., & Bai, J. (2020). Effect of spray-drying temperature on physicochemical, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of pectin/sodium alginate microencapsulated carvacrol. Food Hydrocolloids, 100, 105420.

Suravanichnirachorn, W., Haruthaithanasan, V., Suwonsichon, S., Sukatta, U., Maneeboon, T., & Chantrapornchai, W. (2018). Effect of carrier type and concentration on the properties, anthocyanins and antioxidant activity of freeze-dried mao [Antidesma bunius (L.) Spreng] powders. Agriculture and Natural Resources, 52(4), 354–360.

Tauchen, J., Bortl, L., Huml, L., Miksatkova, P., Doskocil, I., Marsik, P., Villegas, P. P. P., Flores, Y. B., Van Damme, P., Lojka, B., Havlik, J., Lapcik, O., & Kokoska, L. (2016). Phenolic composition, antioxidant and anti-proliferative activities of edible and medicinal plants from the peruvian amazon. Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy, 26(6), 728–737.

Teodoro, R. A. R., de Barros Fernandes, R. V., Botrel, D. A., Borges, S. V., & de Souza, A. U. (2014). Characterization of microencapsulated Rosemary essential oil and its antimicrobial effect on fresh dough. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 7, 2560–2569.

Thaipong, K., Boonprakob, U., Crosby, K., Cisneros-Zevallos, L., & Hawkins Byrne, D. (2006). Comparison of ABTS, DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC assays for estimating antioxidant activity from guava fruit extracts. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 19, 669–675.

Tolun, A., Altintas, Z., & Artik, N. (2016). Microencapsulation of grape polyphenols using maltodextrin and gum arabic as two alternative coating materials: Development and characterization. Journal of Biotechnology, 239, 23–33.

Tran, T. T. A., & Nguyen, H. V. H. (2018). Effects of spray-drying temperatures and carriers on physical and antioxidant properties of Lemongrass leaf extract powder. Beverages, 4(84), 1–14.

Turkiewicz, I. P., Wojdyło, A., Tkacz, K., Lech, K., Michalska-Ciechanowska, A., & Nowicka, P. (2020). The influence of different carrier agents and drying techniques on physical and chemical characterization of Japanese quince (Chaenomeles japonica) microencapsulation powder. Food Chemistry, 323, 126830.

Vit, P., Santiago, B., & Pérez-Pérez, E. M. (2014). Composición química y actividad antioxidante de pulpa, hoja y semilla de guanábana Annona muricata L. Interciencia, 39(5), 350–353.

Yu, Y., & Lv, Y. (2019). Degradation kinetic of anthocyanins from rose (Rosa rugosa) as prepared by microencapsulation in freeze-drying and spray-drying. International Journal of Food Properties, 22(1), 2009–2021.

Zhang, R., Zhou, L., Li, J., Oliveira, H., Yang, N., Jin, W., Zhu, Z., Li, S., & He, J. (2020). Microencapsulation of anthocyanins extracted from grape skin by emulsification/internal gelation followed by spray/freeze-drying techniques: Characterization, stability and bioaccessibility. LWT, 109097.




Cómo citar

Jordán-Suárez, O. ., Glorio-Paulet, P. ., & Vidal, L. . (2021). Optimization of processing parameters for the microencapsulation of soursop (Annona muricata L.) leaves extract: Morphology, physicochemical and antioxidant properties. Scientia Agropecuaria, 12(2), 161-168. https://doi.org/10.17268/sci.agropecu.2021.018



Artículos originales