Galactooligosacáridos: producción, beneficios para la salud, aplicación en alimentos y perspectivas

Ana Elizabeth Cavalcante Fai, Gláucia Maria Pastore


Sintetizados a partir de la transgalactosilación de la lactosa, los galactooligosacáridos son carbohidratos no digeribles, siendo clasificados como ingredientes prebióticos de alto valor añadido. Estudios recientes atribuyen a estos oligosacáridos una serie de potenciales beneficios para la salud y prevención de enfermedades. Esta revisión aborda aspectos de la producción de estos compuestos y sus propiedades físicas y químicas, relacionándolos con su aplicación en la industria alimentaria. Más aún, se presentan los efectos fisiológicos y las perspectivas previstas para estos azúcares no convencionales desde la situación actual.

Palabras clave

Alimentos funcionales; fibra dietaria; β-galactosidasa; reacción de transgalactosilación; oligosacáridos transgalactosilados; ingredientes bioactivos

Texto completo:



Ait-Aissa, A.; Aider, M. 2014. Lactulose: production and use in functional food, medical and pharmaceutical applications. Practical and critical review. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 49: 1245-1253.

Ansari, S.A.; Husain, Q. 2010. Lactose hydrolysis by β-galactosidase immobilized on concanavalin A-cellulose in batch and continuous mode. Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic 63: 68-74.

Barreteau, H.; Delattre, C.; Michaud, P. 2006. Production of oligosaccharides as promising new food additive generation.Food Technology and Biotechnology 44(3): 323-333.

Becerra, M.; Baroli, B.; Fadda, A.M.; Mendez, J.B.; Gonzalez Siso, M I. 2001. Lactose bioconversion by calcium-alginate immobilization of Kluyveromyces lactis cells. Enzyme and Microbial Technology 29: 506-512.

Bicas, J.L.; Silva, J.C.; Dionísio, A.P.; Pastore, G. M. 2010. Biotechnological production of bioflavors and functional sugars. Ciência e Tecnologiade Alimentos 30(1): 7-18

Business Wire. 2014. Research and Markets: Global Functional Food and Nutraceuticals Market 2013-2018 - Analysis of the $175 Billion Industry, publicado on-line em14 de abril de 2014. Disponível em:

Blundell, J. 2010. Making claims: functional foods for managing appetite and weight. Nature Reviews Endocrinology 6: 53-56.

Bruno-Barcena, J.M.; Azcarate-Peril, M.A. 2015. Galacto-oligosaccharides and colorectal cancer: feeding our intestinal probiome. Journal of Functional Foods 12: 92-108.

Carvalho, W.; Canilha, L.; Silva, S.S. 2006. Uso de biocatalisadores imobilizados: uma alternativa para a condução de bioprocessos. Revista Analytica 23: 60-70

Cardelle-Cobas, A.; Corzo, N.; Olano, A.; Peláez, C.; Requena, T.; Ávila, M. 2011. Galactooligosaccharides derived from lactose and lactulose: Influence of structure on Lactobacillus, Streptococcus and Bifidobacterium growth. International Journal of Food Microbiology 149: 81-87.

Chen, C.S.; Hsu, C.K.; Chiang, B.H. 2002. Optimization of the enzymic process for manufacturing low-lactose milk containing oligosaccharides. Process Biochemistry 38: 801-808.

Chong, E.S.L. 2014. A potential role of probiotics in colorectal cancer prevention: review of possible mechanisms of action. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 30: 351–374.

Delgado, G.T.C.; Tamashiro, W.M.S.C.; Pastore, G.M. 2010. Immunomodulatory effects of fructans. Food Research International 43: 1231-1236.

Dwevedi, A.; Kayastha, A.M. 2009. Optimal immobilization of β-galactosidase from Pea (PsBGAL) onto Sephadex and chitosan beads using response surface methodology and its applications. Bioresource Technology 100: 2667-2675.

Dwivedi, S.; Sahrawat, K.; Puppala, N.; Ortiz, R. 2014. Plant prebiotics and human health: Biotechnology to breed prebiotic-rich nutritious food crops. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology 17: 238–245.

Ebrahimi, M.; Placido, L.; Engel, L.; Ashaghi, K.S.; Czermak, P A. 2010. novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the continuous enzymatic synthesis of oligosaccharides. Desalination 250: 1105-1108.

Fai, A.E.C.; Silva, J.B.; Andrade, C.J.; Bution, M.L.; Pastore, G.M. 2014. Production of prebiotic galactooligosaccharides from lactose by Pseudozyma tsukubaensis and Pichia kluyveri. Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology 03: 343-350.

Fai, A.E.C.; Stamford, T.C.M.; Stamford, T.L.M. ; Kawaguti, H.Y.; Thomazelli, I.; Pastore, G. M. 2014. Synthesis of galactooligosaccharides from lactose by β- galactosidase immobilized on glutaraldehyde-treated chitosan. In: Campana Filho, S.C.; Beppu, M.M.; Fiamingo, A. (Editores.). Advances in Chitin Science XIV (1aed), editora IQSC, São Carlos.

Frenzel, M.; Zerge, K.; Clawin-Radecker, I.; Lorenzen, P.C. 2015. Comparison of the galactooligosaccharide forming activity ofdifferent b-galactosidases. LWT - Food Science and Technology 60: 1068-1071.

García-Cayuela,T.; Díez-Municio, M.; Herrero, M. 2014. Selective fermentation of potential prebiotic lactose-derived oligosaccharides by probiotic bacteria, International Dairy Journal 38: 11-15.

Gaur, R.; Pant, H.; Jain, R.; Khare, S.K. 2006. Galacto-oligosaccharide synthesis by immobilized Aspergillus oryzae β-galactosidase. Food Chemistry 97: 426-430.

Giese, E.C.; Hirosi, T.; Silva, M.L.C.; Silva, R.; Barbosa, A.M. 2011. Produção, propriedades e aplicações de oligossacarídeos. Semina: Ciências Agrárias 32(2): 683-700.

Goslin, A.; Stevens, G.; Barber, A.R.; Kentish, S.E.; Gras, S.L. 2010. Recent advances refining galactooligo-saccharide production from lactose. Food Chemistry 121 (2): 307-318.

Gosling, A.; Alftrén, J.; Stevens, G.W.; Barber, A.R.; Kentish, S.E.; Gras, S.L. 2009. Facile pretreatment of Bacillus circulans β-Galactosidase increases the yield of galactosyl oligosaccharides in milk and lactose reaction systems. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 59(7): 3366-3372.

Goulas, A.; Tzortzis, G.; Gibson, G.R. 2007. Development of a process for the production and purification of α- and β-galactooligosaccharides from Bifidobacterium bifidum NCIMB 41171. International Dairy Journal 17: 648-656.

Granato, D.; Branco, G.F.; Nazzaro, F.; Cruz, A.G.; Faria, J.A.F. 2010. Functional foods and nondairy probiotic food development: trends, concepts, and products. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 9: 292-302.

Grosová, Z.; Rosenberg, M.; Rebros, M. 2008. Perspectives and applications of immobilized β-galactosidase in food industry – a review. Czech. Journal Food Sciences 26 (1): 1-14.

Haider, T.; Husain, Q. 2009. Hydrolysis of milk/whey lactose by β-galactosidase: a comparative study of stirred batch process and packed bed reactor prepared with calcium alginate entrapped enzyme. Chemical Engineering and Processing 48: 576-580.

Huber, R.E.; Kurz, G.; Wallenfels, K.A. 1976. Quantitation of the factors which affect the hydrolase and transgalactosylase activities of β-galactosidase (E. coli) on lactose. Biochemistry 15(9): 1994–2001.

Intanon, M.; Arreola, S.L.; Pham, N.H.; Kneifel, W.; Haltrich, D.; Nguyen, T.H. 2014. Nature and biosynthesis of galacto-oligosaccharides related to oligosaccharides in human breast milk. FEMS Microbiology Letters 353: 89-97.

Jovanovic-Malinovska, R.; Kuzmanova, S.; Winkelhausen, E. 2015. Application of ultrasound for enhanced extraction of prebiotic oligosaccharides from selected fruits and vegetables. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 22: 446-453.

Kaur, G.; Panesar, P.S.; Bera, M.B.; Kumar, H. 2009. Hydrolysis of whey lactose using CTAB-permeabilized yeast cells. Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering 32: 63-67.

Kaur, N.; Gupta, A.K. 2002. Applications of inulin and oligofructose in health and nutrition. Journal of Biosciences 27: 703-714.

Kim, J.H.; Lee, D.H.; Lee, J.S. 2001. Production of Galactooligosaccharide by β-Galactosidase from Kluyveromyces maxianus var lactis OE-20. Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering 6: 337-340.

Lee, Y.J.; Kim, C.S.; Oh, D.K. 2004. Lactulose production by β-galactosidase in permeabilized cells of Kluyveromyces lactis. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 64: 787-793.

Li, Z.; Xiao, M.; Lu, L.; Li, Y. 2008. Production of non-monosaccharide and high-purity galactooligosaccha-rides by immobilized enzyme catalysis and fermentation with immobilized yeast cells. Process Biochemistry 43: 896-899.

Mahoney, R. R. 1998. Galactosyl-oligosaccharide forma-tion during lactose hydrolysis: a review. Food Chemistry 63: 147-154.

Mahoney, R.R. 2003. β-Galactosidase In: Whitaker, J.R.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Wong, D.W.S. (Eds). Handbook of Food Enzymology, Edit. Marcel Dekker, Inc, NY.

Manera, A. P.; Costa, F. A. A.; Rodrigues, M. I.; Kalil, S. J.; Maugeri Filho, F. 2010. Galacto-oligosaccharides Production using permeabilized cells of Kluyveromyces marxianus. International Journal of Food Engineering 6(6): 1556-3758.

Marín-Navarro, N.; Talens-Perales, D.; Oude-Vrielink, A.; Cañada, F.J.; Polaina, J. 2014. Immobilization of thermostable b-galactosidase on epoxy support and its use for lactose hydrolysis and galactooligosaccharides biosynthesis. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 30: 989-998.

Martins, A; R, Burkert, C.A.V. 2009. Revisão galacto-oligossacarídeos (GOS) e seus efeitos prebióticos e bifidogênicos. Brazilian Journal of Food Technology 12(3): 230-240.

Michelon, M.; Manera, A.P.; Carvalho, A.L.; Filho, F.M. 2014. Concentration and purification of galacto-oligosaccharides using nanofiltration membranes. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 49: 1953-1961.

Montilla, A.; Megías-Pérez, R.; Olano, A.; Villamiel, M. 2015. Presence of galactooligosaccharides and furosine in special dairy products designed for elderly people. Food Chemistry 172: 481-485.

Mussatto, S.I.; Mancilha, I.M. 2007. Non-digestible oligosaccharides: a review. Carbohydrate Polymers, 68(3): 587-597.

Nakakuki, T. 2002. Present status and future of functional oligosaccharide development in Japan. Pure and Applied Chemistry 74(7): 1245–1251.

Neri, D.F.M.; Balcão, V.M.; Costa, R.S.; Rocha, I.C.A.P.; Ferreira, E.M.F.C.; Torres, D.P.M.; Rodrigues, L.R.M.; Carvalho Júnior, L.B.; Teixeira, J.A. 2009. Galacto-oligosaccharides production during lactose hydrolysis by free Aspergillus oryzae β-galactosidase and immobilized on magnetic polysiloxane-polyvinyl alcohol. Food Chemistry 115: 92-99.

Onishi, N., Yamashiro, A., Yokozeki, K. 1995. Production of galactooligosaccharide from lactose by Sterigmatomyces elviae CBS8119. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 61: 4022-4025.

Onishi, N.; Kira, I.; Yokozeki, K. 1996. Galacto-oligosaccharide production from lactose by Sirobasidium magnum CBS6803.Letters in Applied Microbiology 23: 253-256.

Onishi, N.; Tanaka, T. 1998. Galacto-oligosaccharide production using a recycling cell culture of Sterigmatomyces elviae CBS8119. Letters in Applied Microbiology 26: 136-139.

Ooi, L.G.; Liong, M.T. 2010. Cholesterol-lowering effects of probiotics and prebiotics: a review of in vivo and in vitro findings. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 11: 2499-2522.

Otieno, D.O. 2010. Synthesis of β-galactooligosaccharides from lactose using microbial β-galactosidases. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 9: 471-482.

Panesar, S.; Kumari, S.; Panesar, R. 2010. Potential applications of immobilized β-galactosidase in food processing industries. Enzyme Research 2010: 473137, 16p. doi:10.4061/2010/473137.

Park, A.R, Oh, D.K. 2010. Galacto-oligosaccharide production using microbial β-galactosidase: current state and perspectives. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 85: 1279-1286.

Péris, P.G.; Gimeno, C.V. 2007. Evolución en el conocimiento de la fibra. Nutrición Hospitalaria 22 (2): 20-25.

Pessela, B.C.C.; Fernádez-Lafuente, R.; Fuentes, M.; Vián, L.; García, J.L.; Carrascosa, A.V.; Mateo, C.; Guisánb, J.M. 2003. Reversible immobilization of a thermophilic β-galactosidase via ionic adsorption on PEI-coated Sepabeads. Enzyme and Microbial Technology 32: 369-374.

Petrova, V.Y.; Kujumdzieva, A.V. 2010. Thermotolerant yeast strains producers of galactooligosaccharides. Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment 24(1): 1612-1619.

Playne, M.J.; Crittenden, R.G. 2009. Galacto-oligosaccharides and other products derived from lactose. In: Lactose, Water, Salts and Minor Constituents. Editora: Springer, Nova York.

Rastall, R. A. 2004. Bacteria in the gut: Friends and foes and how to alter the balance. Journal of Nutrition 134(8): 2022S–2026.

Rastall, R. A. 2013. Gluco and galacto-oligosaccharides in food: update on health effects and relevance in healthy nutrition. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care: 16(6): 675-678.

Rastall, R. A.; Gibson G.R. 2015. Recent developments in prebiotics to selectively impact beneficial microbes and promote intestinal health. Current Opinion in Biotechnology 32: 42-46.

Roberfroid, M. 2007. Prebiotics: The Concept Revisited. Journal of Nutrition 137: 830-837.

Roberfroid, M.B. 2002. Functional food concept and its application to prebiotics. Digestive and Liver Disease 34(2): 105-110.

Rodriguez-Colinas, B.; Fernandez-Arrojo, L.; Ballesteros, A.O.; Plou, F.J. 2014. Galactooligosaccharides formation during enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose: Towards a prebiotic-enriched milk, Food Chemistry 145: 388–394.

Roy, D.; Daoudi, L.; Azaola, A. 2002. Optimization of galacto-oligosaccharide production by Bifidobacterium infantis RW-8120 using response surface methodology. Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology 29: 281-285.

Rustom, I.Y.S; Foda, M.I.; López Leiva, M.H. 1998. Formation of oligosaccharides from whey UF-permeate by enzymatic hydrolysis: analysis of factors. Food chemistry 62(2): 141-147.

Sako, T.; Matsumoto, K.; Tanaka, R. 1999. Recent progress on research and applications of non-digestible galacto-oligosaccharides. International Dairy Journal 9: 69-80.

Santos, E.F.; Tsuboi, K.H.; Araújo, M.R.; Andreollo, N.A.; Miyasaka, C.K. 2011. Influência da dieta com galactooligossacarídeos sobre a absorção de cálcio em ratos normais e gastrectomizados. Revista do Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões 38(3): 186-191.

Santos, R.; Simiqueli, A.P.R.; Pastore, G.M. 2009. Produção de galactooligossacarídeo por Scopulariopis sp. Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos 29(3): 682-689.

Scholz-Ahrens, K.E.; Ade, P.; Marten, B.; Weber, P.; Timm, W.; Açil, Y.; Gluer, C.C.; Schrezenmeir, J. 2007. Prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics affect mineral absorption, bone mineral content, and bone structure. Journal of Nutrition 137: 838S-46S.

Schwab, C.; Ganzle, M. 2011. Lactic acid bacteria fermentation of human milk oligosaccharide components, human milkoligosaccharides and galactooligosaccharides. FEMS Microbiology Letters 315: 141-148.

Sousa, V.M.C.; Santos, E.F.; Sgarbieri, V.C. 2011. The importance of prebiotics in functional foods and clinical practice. Food and Nutrition Sciences 2: 133-144.

Torres, D.P.M.; Gonçalves, M.P.F.; Teixeira, J.A.; Rodrigues, L.R. 2010. Galacto-oligosaccharides: production, properties, applications, and significance as prebiotics. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 9: 438-454.

Transparency Market Research. 2014. Prebiotics Market Will Flourish in the Forthcoming Years, publicado on-line em 25 de novembro de 2014. Disponível em:

Tungland, B. C.; Meyer, D. 2002. Nondigestibleoligo- and polysaccharides (dietary fiber): their physiology and role in human health and food. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 1(3): 90-109.

Turgeon, S.L.; Rioux, L.E. 2011. Food matrix impact on macronutrients nutritional properties. Food Hydrocolloids 25: 1915-1924.

Tzortzis, G.; Goulas, A.K.; Gee, J.M.; Gibson, G.R. 2005. A novel galactooligosaccharide mixture increases the bifidobacterial population numbers in a continuous in vitro fermentation system and in the proximal colonic contents of pigs in vivo. J. of Nutrition 135: 726-1731.

Tzortzis G., Vulevic J. 2009. Galacto-oligosaccharide prebiotics. Em: Prebiotics and probiotics science and technology. Nova York: Springer.

Veereman-Wauters, 2005. G. Application of prebiotics in infant foods. British Journal of Nutrition 93: 57-60.

Vitetta, L.; Briskey, D.; Alford, H.; Hall, S.; Coulson, S. 2014. Probiotics, prebiotics and the gastrointestinal tract in health and disease. Inflammopharmacol 22: 135–154.

Wallenfels, K.; Malhotra, O. P. 1961. Galactosidases. Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry 16: 239-298.

Wallenfels, K. 1951. Enzymatische synthese von oligosa-cchariden aus disacchariden. Naturwissenschaften 38 (13): 306-307.

Whelan, K. 2014. Prebiotics and gastrointestinal health. In Advanced Nutrition and Dietetics in Gastroenterology (Ed. M. Lomer). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Oxford.

Wu, Z.; Dong, M.; Lu, M.; Li, Z. 2010. Encapsulation of β-galactosidase from Aspergillus oryzae based on “fish-in-net” approach with molecular imprinting technique. J. of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic 63: 75-80.

Zhang, J.; Zeng, J.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y. 2006. Immobilization of ß-galactosidase on tamarind gum and chitosan composite microspheres. Journal of Bioactive and Compatible Polymers 21: 415-432.

Received: 05/12/14; Accepted: 25/01/15

Corresponding author: E-mail: (A.E.C. Fai).


Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.

Indizada o resumida en:










Licencia de Creative Commons Scientia Agropecuaria revista de la Universidad Nacional de Trujillo publica sus contenidos bajo licencia Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial 3.0.

ISSN: 2306-6741 (electrónico); 2077-9917 (impreso)

Dirección: Av Juan Pablo II s/n. Ciudad Universitaria. Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias. Universidad Nacional de Trujillo. Trujillo, Perú.