Effect of different extracting solvents on antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of a fruit and vegetable residue flour

Mônica C. P. Santos, Édira C. B. A. Gonçalves


In order to quantify antioxidant capacity in food products, several methods have been proposed over the years. Among them, DPPH radical is widely used to determine the antioxidant capacity of different substrates. However, it is known that different types of extractants, providing different responses, can extract a variety of bioactive compounds. Besides, storage time seems to interfere in the stability of these substances. Integral use of fruits and vegetables has been proposed along the years as a means of reducing environmental pollution and give a better destination to by-products from food industries. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential of a fruit and vegetables residue flour (FVR) with sequential and non-sequential extraction, in order to evaluate its antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds. And these compounds stability during storage of 180 days. It was observed that in non-sequential extraction, water was able to reduce by 74% the radical; however, at sequential extraction process, using six different extractors, each one was able to reduce at least 40% of DPPH. The total soluble phenolic contents in sequential extraction were 22.49 ± 1.59 mg GAE/g FVR on the first day and 5.35 ± 0.32 mg GAE/g FVR after 180 days.

Palabras clave

antioxidant activity; phenolic compounds; residue flour; DPPH assay

Texto completo:

PDF (English) HTML (English)


Arnao, M.B. 2000. Some methodological problems in the determination of antioxidant activity using chromogen radicals: a practical case. Trends in Food Science and Technology 11: 419–421.

Ayala-Zavala, J.F.; Vega-Vega, V.; Rosas-Domínguez, C; Palafox-Carlos, H.; Villa-Rodriguez, J. A.; Siddiqui, M.W.; Dávila-Aviña, J.E.; González-Aguilar, G.A. 2011. Agro-industrial potential of exotic fruit byproducts as a source of food additives. Food Research International 44: 1866–1874.

Babbar, N.; Oberoi, H.S.; Uppal, D.S.; Patil, R.T. 2011. Total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of extracts obtained from six important fruit residues. Food Research International 44: 391–396.

Blois, M.S. 1958. Antioxidant Determinations by the Use of a Stable Free Radical. Nature 181: 1199–1200.

Brand-Williams, W.; Cuvelier, M.E.; Berset, C. 1995. Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT - Food Science Technology 28: 25–30.

Caetano, A.C.D.S.; Araújo, C.R.; Lima, V.L.A.; Maciel, M.I.S.; Melo, E.D.A. 2011. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of agro-industrial waste of acerola (Malpighia emarginata D.C.) fruit extracts. Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos 31: 769–775.

Ferreira, M.S.L.; Santos, M.C.P.; Moro, T.M.A.; Basto, G.J.; Andrade, R.M.S.; Gonçalves, É.C.B.A. 2015. Formulation and characterization of functional foods based on fruit and vegetable residue flour. Journal of Food Science and Technology 52: 822 – 830.

Frankel, E.N.; Meyer, A.S. 2000. Review The problems of using one-dimensional methods to evaluate multifunctional food and biological antioxidants. Journal of the Science Food and Agriculture 1941: 1925–1941.

Goli, A.H.; Barzegar, M.; Sahari, M.A. 2005. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds of pistachio (Pistachia vera) hull extracts. Food Chemistry 92: 521–525.

Litwinienko, G.; Ingold, K.U. 2005. Abnormal solvent effects on hydrogen atom abstraction. 3. Novel kinetics in sequential proton loss electron transfer chemistry. Journal of Organic Chemistry 70: 8982–90.

Litwinienko, G.; Ingold, K.U. 2004. Abnormal solvent effects on hydrogen atom abstraction. 2. Resolution of the curcumin antioxidant controversy. The role of sequential proton loss electron transfer. Journal of Organic Chemistry 69: 5888–96.

Litwinienko, G.; Ingold, K.U. 2003. Abnormal solvent effects on hydrogen atom abstractions. 1. The reactions of phenols with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (dpph*) in alcohols. Journal of Organic Chemistry 68: 3433–8.

Makris, D.P.; Boskou, G.; Andrikopoulos, N.K. 2007. Recovery of antioxidant phenolics from white vinification solid by-products employing water/ethanol mixtures. Bioresource Technology 98: 2963–7.

Martins, R.C.; Chiapetta, S.C.; Paula, F.D.; Gonçalves, É.C.B.A. 2011. Avaliação da vida de prateleira de bebida isotônica elaborada com suco concentrado de frutas e hortaliças congeladas por 30 dias. Alimentos e Nutrição 22: 623–629.

Melo, P.S.; Bergamaschi, K.B.; Tiveron, A.P.; Massarioli, A.P.; Luiza, T.; Oldoni, C.; Zanus, M.C.; Pereira, G.E.; Alencar, S.M. 2011. Composição fenólica e atividade antioxidante de resíduos agroindustriais. Ciência Rural 41: 1088–1093.

Moure, A.; Cruz, J.M.; Franco, D.; Domı́nguez, J.M.; Sineiro, J.; Domı́nguez, H.; José Núñez, M.; Parajó, J.C. 2001. Natural antioxidants from residual sources. Food Chemistry 72: 145–171.

Pérez-Jiménez, J.; Arranz, S.; Tabernero, M.; Díaz- Rubio, M.E.; Serrano, J.; Goñi, I.; Saura-Calixto, F. 2008. Updated methodology to determine antioxidant capacity in plant foods, oils and beverages: Extraction, measurement and expression of results. Food Research International 4: 274–285.

Pérez-Jiménez, J.; Saura-Calixto, F. 2006. Effect of solvent and certain food constituents on different antioxidant capacity assays. Food Research International 39: 791–800.

Rotili, M.C.C.; Vorpagel, J.A.; Braga, G.C.; Kuhn, O.J.; Salibe, A.B. 2013. Antioxidant activity, chemical composition and conservation of yellow passion fruit packed with PVC film. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura 35: 942-952.

Rufino, M.D.S.M.; Alves, R.E.; Brito, E.S.; Pérez-Jiménez, J.; Saura-Calixto, F.; Mancini-Filho, J. 2010. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacities of 18 non-traditional tropical fruits from Brazil. Food Chemistry 121: 996–1002.

Sanchez-Moreno, C. 2002. Review: Methods Used to Evaluate the Free Radical Scavenging Activity in Foods and Biological Systems. Food Science and Technology International 8: 121–137.

Singleton, V.; Orthofer, R.; Lamuela-Raventos, R.M. 1999. Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of folin-ciocalteu reagent. Methods Enzymology 1: 152-178.

Sun, J.; Chu, Y.F.; Wu, X.Z.; Liu, R.H. 2002. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of vegetables. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry. 50, 6910–6916.

Turkmen, N.; Sari, F.; Velioglu, Y.S. 2006. Effects of extraction solvents on concentration and antioxidant activity of black and black mate tea polyphenols determined by ferrous tartrate and Folin–Ciocalteu methods. Food Chemistry 99: 835–841.

Velioglu, Y.S.; Mazza, G.; Gao, L.; Oomah, B.D. 1998. Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolics in Selected Fruits, Vegetables, and Grain Products. J. Agric. Food Chemistry 46: 4113–4117.

Wolfe, K.; Wu, X.; Liu, R.H. 2003. Antioxidant activity of apple peels. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 51: 609–614.

Wolfe, K.L.; Liu, R.H. 2003. Apple peels as a value-added food ingredient. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 51: 1676–683.

Zuo, Y. 2002. Simultaneous determination of catechins, caffeine and gallic acids in green, Oolong, black and pu-erh teas using HPLC with a photodiode array detector. Talanta 57: 307–316.

Received November 16, 2015.

Accepted February 22, 2016.

* Corresponding author

E-mail: ediracba@analisedealimentos.com (E. Gonçalves).

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17268/sci.agropecu.2016.01.01

Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.

Indizada o resumida en:










Licencia de Creative Commons Scientia Agropecuaria revista de la Universidad Nacional de Trujillo publica sus contenidos bajo licencia Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial 3.0.

ISSN: 2306-6741 (electrónico); 2077-9917 (impreso)

Dirección: Av Juan Pablo II s/n. Ciudad Universitaria. Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias. Universidad Nacional de Trujillo. Trujillo, Perú.