Extraction of bioactive compounds from Peruvian purple corn cob by high isostatic pressure


  • Jhoseline Stayce Guillén Sánchez Faculty of Food Engineering, Department of Food Technology, State University of Campinas, UNICAMP, P.O.Box. 6121, 13083-862, Campinas, S.P.
  • Cinthia Baú Betim Cazarin Faculty of Food Engineering, Food and Nutrition Department, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, 13083-862, Campinas.
  • Miriam Regina Canesin Faculty of Food Engineering, Food and Nutrition Department, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, 13083-862, Campinas.
  • Felix G. R. Reyes Faculty of Food Engineering, Department of Food Science, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, Rua Monteiro Lobato, 80, 13083-862, Campinas.
  • Amadeu Hoshi Iglesias ApexScience Laboratory, Marechal Rondon Avenue, 2148, Jd. Chapadão, Campinas .
  • Marcelo Cristianini Faculty of Food Engineering, Department of Food Technology, State University of Campinas, UNICAMP, P.O.Box. 6121, 13083-862, Campinas.



Palabras clave:

Purple corn cob, High pressure, Bioactive compound, Antioxidant activity, Anthocyanins


The purple corn cob is an agro-industrial by-product that contains high-value bioactive compounds, which makes its use attractive for the development of extraction processes. The aim of this research was to extract the bioactive compounds from the purple corn cob by high isostatic pressure at different processing temperatures. Pressures of 0.01 MPa, 250 MPa, 450 MPa and 650 MPa for 3 minutes and at temperatures of 25 °C, 45 °C and 65 °C were used. High pressure extraction was compared with conventional extraction (2.5 h at 25°C). The purple corn cob extract obtained by isostatic processing at 650 MPa and 65 °C presented high antioxidant activity and content of bioactive compounds, unlike the conventional extraction of 2.5 h and 65 °C (p < 0.05). However, it did not show a significant difference with the extract obtained at 450 MPa and 45 °C (p > 0.05). Seven different anthocyanins were identified by liquid chromatography in the extracts obtained by high isostatic pressure (650 MPa at 65 °C) and hydroalcoholic maceration (2.5 h at 65 °C), mainly cyanidin-3-glucoside, pelargonidin-3-glucoside and peonidin-3-glucoside, and their respective malonyl derivatives. The high isostatic pressure increased the extraction of bioactive compounds by more than 50% and obtained them in shorter times, thus appearing as a new alternative, and eco-friendly method for the extraction of bioactive compounds from plant tissues.


Aghajanzadeh, S., Ziaiifar, A., Verkerk, R. (2022). Effect of thermal and non-thermal treatments on the color of citrus juice: A review. Food Reviews International, 3(1), 1-23.

AOAC. Horwitz, W. (Ed). (2005). Official methods of Analysis of AOAC International, 18th edition, AOAC International, Maryland, USA.

Arroyo, J., Raez, E., Rodriguez, M., Chumpitaz, V., Burga, J., De La Cruz, W., & Valencia, J. (2008). Antihypertensive and antioxidant activity of the atomized hydroalcoholic extract of purple corn (Zea Mays L.) in rats. Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública, 25(2), 195-199.

Barba, F., Esteve, M., & Frigola, A. (2013). Physicochemical and nutritional characteristics of blueberry juice after high pressure processing. Food Research International, 50, 545-549.

Barba, F, Putnik, P., Bursac, D., Poojary, M., Roohinejad, S., Lorenzo, J., & Koubaa, M. (2017). Impact of conventional and non-conventional processing on prickly pear (Opuntia spp.) and their derived products: From preservation of beverages to valorization of by-products. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 67, 260-270.

Benzie, F., & Strain, J. (1996). The Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP) as a Measure of ‘‘Antioxidant Power’’: The FRAP Assay. Analytical Biochemistry, 239, 70-76.

Bligh, E., & Dyer, W. (1959). A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. Canadian Journal of Biochemistry and Physiology, 37(8), 911-917.

Rafael, E., & Castro, D. (2023). Extracción y cuantificación de Antocianinas de maíz morado (Zea Mays L.) utilizando dos solventes a diferentes temperaturas y tiempos de extracción. Revista Latinoamericana de Difusión Científica, 5(8), 47-80.

Cerro, R. (2009). Extração e caracterização do pigmento do sabugo de milho roxo (Zea Mays L.) e sua aplicação em alimentos (Dissertação de Mestrado). Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, Brasil.

Dunford, N., Imak, S., Jonnala, R. (2010). Pressurized solvent extraction of policosanol from wheat straw, germ and bran. Food Chemistry, 119(3), 1246-1249.

Dukić, J., Hunić, M., Nutrizio, M., Režek, A. (2022). Influence of High-Power Ultrasound on Yield of Proteins and Specialized Plant Metabolites from Sugar Beet Leaves (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris var. altissima). Applied Sciences, 12(18), 8949.

Falcão, L., Barros, D., Gauche, C., & Bordignon, M. (2003). Copigmentação intra e intermolecular de antocianinas: uma revisão. Boletim do Centro de Pesquisa de Processamento de Alimentos, Curitiba, 21(2), 351-366.

García, J., González-Cebrino, F., Delgado, J., Cava, R., & Ramírez, R. (2016). High pressure assisted thermal processing of pumpkin purée: Effect on microbial counts, color, bioactive compounds and polyphenoloxidase enzyme. Journal of Food and Bioproducts Processing, 98, 124-132.

IAL - Instituto Adolfo Lutz (2008). Procedimentos e determinações gerais. In: Zenebon O, Pascuet N, Tiglea, P (eds.), Métodos Físico-Químicos para análise de alimentos, pp.83-158.

Itthisoponkul, T., Naknan, P., Prompun, S., & Kasemwong, K. (2018). Evaluation of high pressure treatment for improvement of physicochemical and functional qualities in purple corncobs. International Food Research Journal, 25(1), 246-253.

Koo, A., Xiang Chew, D., Ghate, V., Zhou, W. (2023). Residual polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase activity in high pressure processed bok choy (Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis) juice did not accelerate nutrient degradation during storage. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 103284.

Lao, F., Sigurdson, G., & Giusti, M. (2017). Health Benefits of Purple Corn (Zea mays L.). Phenolic Compounds. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 16, 234-246.

Monroy, Y., Rodrigues, R., Sartoratto, A., & Cabral, F. (2016a). Influence of ethanol, water, and their mixtures as co-solvents of the supercritical carbon dioxide in the extraction of phenolics from purple corn cob (Zea Mays L.). The Journal of Supercritical Fluids, 118, 11–18.

Monroy, Y., Rodriguez, R., Sartoratto, A., & Cabral, F. (2016b). Extraction of bioactive compounds from cob and pericarp of purple corn (Zea mays L.) by sequential extraction in fixed bed extractor using supercritical CO2, ethanol, and water as solvents. The Journal of supercritical fluids, 118, 10-19.

Montes, C., Vicario, I., Raymundo, M., Fett, R., & Heredia, F. (2005). Application of tristimulus colourimetry to optimize the extraction of anthocyanin from Jaboticaba (Myricia Jaboticaba Berg.). Food Research International, 38, 983–988.

Muangrat, R., Pongsirikul, I., & Blanca, P. (2018). Ultrasound assisted extraction of Anthocyanins and total phenolic compounds from dried cob of purple waxy corn using response surface methodology. Journal of food processing and preservation, 42(2), e13447.

National Institute of Agrarian Innovation – INIA (2007). Boletín informativo Maíz INIA 615 Negro Canaán. https://repositorio.inia.gob.pe/bitstream/20.500.12955/648/1/Trip-Maiz-INIA613.pdf

Ou, B., Chang, T., Huang, D., & Prior, R. (2013). Determination of total antioxidante capacity by oxigen radical absorvace capacity (ORAC) using fluorescein as the fluorescence probe: First action 2012.23. Food composition and additives, 96(6), 1372-1376.

Padrón, C., Padrón, G., Montes, A., & Oropeza, R. (2012). Determinación del color en epicarpio de tomates (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) con sistema de visión computarizada durante la maduración. Agronomía Costarricense, 36(1), 97-111.

Pascual-Teresa, S., Santos-Buelga, C., & Rivas-Gonzalo, J. (2002). LC-MS Analysis of anthocyanins from purple corn cob. Journal Science Food Agriculture, 82, 1003-1006.

Radziejewska, E., Szwengiel, A., Ratajkiewicz, H., & Nowak, K. (2020). Effect of ultrasound, heating and enzymatic pre-treatment on bioactive compounds in juice from Berberis amurensis Rupr. Ultrasonics – Sonochemistry, 63, 104-971.

Saikaew, K., Lertrat, K., Meenune, M., & Tangwongchai, R. (2018). Effect of high-pressure processing on colour, phytochemical contents and antioxidant activities of purple waxy corn (Zea mays L. var. ceratina) kernels. Food Chemistry, 243, 328–337.

Siddiqui, S., Schulte, H., Pleissner, D., Schönfelder, S., Kvangarsnes, K., et al. (2023). Transformation of Seafood Side-Streams and Residuals into Valuable Products. Foods, 12, 422.

Singleton, V., & Rossi, J. (1965). Colorimetry of Total Phenolics with Phosphomolybdic-Phosphotungstic Acid Reagents. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 16(3), 144-158.

Strack, D., & Wray, V. (1989) Anthocyanins. In: Harbone H (ed). Methods in Plant Biochemistry, Plant Phenolics. Academic Press, New York, pp. 325-356.

Surco, F., García, J., Valle, M., Panay, J., Bonifaz, M., et al. (2023). Bioactive compounds and in vitro antioxidant activity of the ethanolic and hydroalcoholic extract of Ricinus communis L. (Higuerilla). Revista Cubana de Farmacia, 55(4), e840.

Tatiane, D., Da Silva, C., & Cláudio Da Costa, S. (2023). Pressurized liquid extraction of compounds from Stevia leaf: Evaluation of process variables and extract characterization. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids, 193, 105813.

Terzića, M., Majkićb, T., Zengin, G., Beara, I., Céspedes-Acuña, C., Čavić, D., & Radojkovica, M. (2023). Could elderberry fruits processed by modern and conventional drying and extraction technology be considered a valuable source of health-promoting compounds? Food chemistry, 405, 134766.

Tian, Y., Puganen, A., Alakomi, H. L., Uusitupa, A., & Saarela, M. (2018). Antioxidative and antibacterial activities of aqueous ethanol extracts of berries, leaves, and branches of berry plants. Food research international, 106, 291-303.

Villarroel, J., Sanabria, N., & Pérez, L. (2020). Bioactive compounds and kinetic degradation of anthocyanins in extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Revista Ciencia Tecnologia. Agrollanía, 19, 18-24.




Cómo citar

Guillén Sánchez, J. S. ., Betim Cazarin, C. B. ., Regina Canesin, M. ., Reyes, F. G. R. ., Hoshi Iglesias, A. ., & Cristianini, M. . (2023). Extraction of bioactive compounds from Peruvian purple corn cob by high isostatic pressure. Scientia Agropecuaria, 14(1), 49-57. https://doi.org/10.17268/sci.agropecu.2023.005



Artículos originales

Artículos más leídos del mismo autor/a