¿Cuándo apareció el sistema nervioso? Enfoque evolutivo en metazoos no vertebrados

Anthony León

Resumen


RESUMEN

 

El inicio de la era genómica y la invención de técnicas moleculares vanguardistas han revolucionado la genética en el transcurso de las últimas décadas. Estos avances científicos han permitido revelar mecanismos desconocidos que controlan la diferenciación celular y el desarrollo de estructuras novedosas y originales en diversos organismos a lo largo de su historia evolutiva. Una de dichas estructuras es el sistema nervioso, el cual está presente en todos los animales excepto en esponjas y placozoos. La aparición de esta estructura significó un gran salto evolutivo dentro del filo Metazoo, y su amplia diversificación en cada grupo animal ha sido materia de debate en los últimos años. En este artículo, se discuten los posibles orígenes del sistema nervioso.

 

Palabras clave: Bilaterales, células neurales, ctenóforos, metazoos, sistema nervioso.

 

 

 

ABSTRACT

 

The beginning of the new genomic era and the emergence of cutting-edge molecular tools have revolutionized genetics over the past decades. These scientific breakthroughs have allowed to eveal unknown developmental mechanisms in cell differentiation and the emergence of novel structures in several organisms throughout their evolutionary history. One of such structures is the nervous system, which is present in all animals excepting sponges and placozoans. The emergence of this structure meant a great evolutionary leap inside the Metazoan phylum, and its wide diversification in each animal clade has been a subject of debate during the last years. In this article, the putative origins of the nervous system are discussed.

 

 Keywords: Bilaterians, ctenophores, metazoans, nervous system, neural cells.


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Referencias


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